Colloquium in Honor of John McNeill
Barrie, Fred .
A century of typification: concepts and practices.
Principal II of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants states "The application of names of taxonomic groups is determined by means of nomenclatural types." These days, what is meant by the term 'type' is clear: it is "that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached (Art. 7.2)" and by 'element' is meant a specimen or an illustration. It is a physical object. And under recent Codes, the ultimate type of any name that requires one must be a specimen or illustration. This was not always the case, however. In the Cambridge Rules (1935), the first truly international code of botanical nomenclature, the type of the name of a species was preferably a specimen, but it could also be an illustration or, as a last resort, a description. The type of a name at a higher rank was a taxon of the next lower primary rank: the type of a genus, for example, was an included species and the type of a family was the genus upon which the family name was based. The process of refining the definition of 'element', purging taxa and circumscriptions from the concept, was gradual and it wasn't until the Berlin Congress (1988) that the last vestiges were eliminated. More recent Congresses have clarified exactly what constitutes a specimen for purposes of typification (St. Louis 1999) and when an illustration may be indicated as the type of a newly published name (Vienna 2005).
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1 - Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA
Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Location: Delaware D/Hyatt
Date: Monday, July 9th, 2012
Time: 2:00 PM