Sundue, Michael , Ranker, Tom , Morden, Clifford , Parris, Barbara , Zamora-Crosby, Delia , Shaw, Shane .
New insights into the phylogeny and biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae).
Grammitid ferns comprise a monophyletic group of 900 species of tropical epiphytes distributed in humid montane forests ofthe world. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that several large genera occurring mostly in the Paleotropics (Ctenopteris s.l., Grammitis s.l.) or mostly in the Neotropics (Lellingeria, Terpsichore) were polyphyletic, necessitating nomenclatural innovations at the generic level. Although recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have made significant progress in delineating primarily Neotropical genera, our current research is primarily focused on Paleotropical taxa where about 2/3 of the diversity of the clade is held. We have conducted phylogenetic analyses of plastid DNA sequences of rbcL, atpB, and trnL-trnF IGS sequence data on 365 accessions of grammitid ferns representing 319 species and 29 presently recognized genera. Neotropical species account for 169 of the accessions and Paleotropical account for 196. There are six important features of our analyses: 1) grammitids are ancestrally Neotropical. 2) At least 13 dispersal events from the Neotropics to the Paleotropics have occurred, whereas only one dispersal event from the Paleotropics to the Neotropics has occurred. 3) Most dispersal events have not coincided with species radiations although two have: first,the radiation of the Hawaiian endemic genus Adenophorus (10-12 species); second, a large clade estimated to comprise ~530 species This large clade is primarily restricted to Asia and the Pacific, but with three dispersal events out of this region. Two species (Grammitis magellanica and G. poeppigiana) independently dispersed to Southern Chile. The other dispersal was to the Neotropics and comprises the genus Moranopteris (28 spp.). 4) African and Malagasy species are not part of this predominantly Asian clade. African species are all disjunctions from otherwise Neotropical genera (Alansmia, Ceradenia, Enterosora, Leucotrichum, Melpomene, Stenogrammitis, and Zygophlebia) or from the circumaustral Grammitis s.s.5) Hawaiian grammitids are the result of four independent colonization events, whereas previous studies indicated only three. 6) Several Paleotropical genera,as sampled so far, were supported as monophyletic (i.e., Acrosorus, Calymmodon, Chrysogrammitis, Dasygrammitis, Micropolypodium, Scleroglossum, and Xiphopterella) or nearly so (Prosaptia); but, several genera were clearly not monophyletic (e.g., Ctenopterella, Grammitis, Oreogrammitis, Radiogrammitis, and Tomophyllum).
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1 - The Pringle Herbarium, University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant Biology, 27 Colchester Ave., Vermont, 05405, United States
2 - National Science Foundation, Division Of Environmental Biology, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Room 635N, Arlington, VA, 22230, USA
3 - University Of Hawaii, Department Of Botany, 3190 Maile Way, HONOLULU, HI, 96822-2279, USA
4 - Fern Research Foundation, 21 James Kemp Place, Bay of Islands, Kerikeri, New Zealand
5 - The University of Vermont, Dept. of Plant Biology, 111 Jeffords Hall, 63 Carrigan Dr., Burlington, Vermont, 05405, United States
6 - University of Hawaii, Dept. of Botany, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI, 96822-2279
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Location: Union E/Hyatt
Date: Monday, July 9th, 2012
Time: 11:30 AM