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Abstract Detail


Mycological Section

Beaulieu, Wesley T [1], Ryan, Katy L [2], Panaccione, Daniel G [2], Miller, Richard E [3], Clay, Keith [1].

Cosmopolitan Distribution of Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Periglandula, Clavicipitaceous Symbionts of the Convolvulaceae.

Ergot alkaloids are fungal secondary metabolites known for their role in animal toxicity and plant defense against herbivores. In plants, ergot alkaloids are produced by symbiotic fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota) that form associations with the Poaceae (symbiotic with Epichloa and Neotyphodium spp.) but are also distributed across several mono- and dicotyledonous plant families including the Cyperaceae (symbiotic with Balansia spp.)and the Convolvulaceae (symbiotic with recently described Periglandula spp.). Here we report on a survey of the Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family) from the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium for (1) the presence of fungal ergot alkaloids in seeds and (2) theintra- and interspecific chemical diversity therein. We focused our efforts on the speciose tribe Ipomoeeae (Ipomoea and related genera), which includes 900 tropical and sub-tropical species,primarily twining vines but also trees and shrubs. We extracted alkaloids from pulverized seeds in methanol which we then analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). Concentrations of ergot alkaloids in the Convolvulaceae ranged from 0.1 to 3634 µg/g seed; the upper limit is up to 1000fold greater than in most Clavicipitaceae-Poaceae symbioses. Our survey of 220 species revealed 48 ergot-positive species, 32 of which were previously unreported. Twelve ergot alkaloids occurred among these species in 35different unique combinations (chemotypes). Different chemotypes were detected among accessions from single species in several cases, indicating genetic variation of symbionts. There were over 100 instances when a specific ergot alkaloid was detected for the first time in a particular species. Our results suggest that each species containing ergot alkaloids harbors a clavicipitaceous fungal symbiont similar to described Periglandula. Further, our results show a worldwide distribution of ergot-positive species including representatives from North,Central & South America, Africa, Australia, Asia and Oceania. Given that there are 900 species in the Ipomoeeae, we have yet to realize the diversity and distribution of the symbiotic relationship between the Clavicipitaceaeand the Convolvulaceae.

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1 - Indiana University, Biology, 1001 E 3rd Street, Jordan Hall 159, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA
2 - West Virginia University, Division of Plant & Soil Sciences, 1090 Agricultural Sciences Building, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA
3 - Southeastern Louisiana University, Department of Biological Sciences, 403 Biology Building, Hammond, LA, 70402, USA

Keywords:
Lysergic Acid
Ergopeptines
Turbina
Argyreia
Stictocardia.

Presentation Type: Poster:Posters for Sections
Session: P
Location: Battelle South/Convention Center
Date: Monday, July 9th, 2012
Time: 5:30 PM
Number: PMY005
Abstract ID:692


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